ESC
Clarivate

 
Source: Journal Citation ReportsTM from ClarivateTM 2022

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues Open access
Journal Impact FactorTM (2022) 1.7
Journal Citation IndicatorTM (2022) 0.42
Received: 2022-04-25  |  Accepted: 2022-08-18  |  Published: 2022-09-30

Title

On disinformation as a hybrid threat spread through social networks


Abstract

Disinformation today poses a serious hybrid threat, the severity of which is exacerbated by the dynamic development and massive use of social networks. The development of the Internet, connectivity and information and communication technologies has caused that information are disseminated 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. In the history of mankind, it has never been easier to receive, search and spread. However, this progress has many positives and many negatives. In the avalanche of information that comes to us on a daily basis, it is undoubtedly very difficult to distinguish which information is true, objective, based on real events and, conversely, which information is misleading, distorted or completely fabricated, created in order to obtain economic, political or other profit. Many non-state actors, but also, unfortunately, state actors, have begun to use this fact to disseminate false information to advance their financial, political, or power interests. Information, resp. disinformation has become a weapon and social networks, which are an excellent tool for spreading disinformation in today's modern information society, have become a battleground for hostile hybrid activities performed on the target audience in the so called Gray zone between peace and war.


Keywords

disinformation, sustainability, social networks, hybrid threats, internet, technologies


JEL classifications

O33 , Z00


URI

http://jssidoi.org/jesi/article/999


DOI


Pages

344-357


Funding

This work was supported by the Agency for the Support of Research and Development on the basis of Contract no. APVV-20-0334.

This is an open access issue and all published articles are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Authors

Ivančík, Radoslav
Academy of the Police Force in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia https://www.akademiapz.sk
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Nečas, Pavel
Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia https://www.umb.sk
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Journal title

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues

Volume

10


Number

1


Issue date

September 2022


Issue DOI


ISSN

ISSN 2345-0282 (online)


Publisher

VšĮ Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, Vilnius, Lithuania

Cited

Google Scholar

Article views & downloads

HTML views: 1184  |  PDF downloads: 620

References


Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31 (2), 211-236. https://doi.org/10.3386/w23089

Search via ReFindit


Andrassy, V., & Grega, M. (2015). Možnosti optimalizácie informačných systémov v bezpečnostnom systéme. Košická bezpečnostná revue, 5 (2), 11-18. ISSN 1338-4880.

Search via ReFindit


Aro, J. (2016). The Cyberspace War: Propaganda and Trolling as Warfare Tools. European View, 15(1), 121-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12290-016-0395-5

Search via ReFindit


Bayer, M. (2006). Strategic Information Warfare: An introduction. Cyberwar, Netwar and the Revolution in Military Affairs, 32-48. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230625839_3

Search via ReFindit


Baym, G. (2005). The daily show: discursive integration and the reinvention of political journalism. Political Communication, 22 (3), 259–276. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584600591006492

Search via ReFindit


Bennett, L., & Livingston, S. (2018). The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions. European Journal of Communication, 33 (2), 122-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323118760317

Search via ReFindit


Biały, B. (2017). Social Media - From Social Exchange to Battlefield. The Cyber Defense Review, 2 (2), 69-90. Retrieved May 9, 2022, from https://cyberdefensereview.army.mil/Portals/6/Documents/CDR%20Journal%20Articles/Social%20Media%20From%20Social%20Exchange_Bialy.pdf?ver=2018-07-31-093711-437

Search via ReFindit


Biteniece, N., Bertolin, G., Agarwal, N., Bandeli, K. K., & Sedova, K. (2017). Digital Hydra: Security Implications of False Information Online. Riga: NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence

Search via ReFindit


Cambridge Dictionary. (2021). Disinformation. Retrieved May 6, 2022, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/disinformation

Search via ReFindit


DataReportal. (2022). Global Digital Overview. Retrieved May 15, 2022, from https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2021-global-overview-report

Search via ReFindit


Davison, W. P. (1971). Some Trends in International Propaganda. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/000271627139800102

Search via ReFindit


European Commission. (2018). Final report of the High-Level Expert Group on Fake News and Online Disinformation. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved May 12, 2022, from https://www.ecsite.eu/activities-and-services/resources/final-report-high-level-expert-group-fake-news-and-online

Search via ReFindit


European Parliament. (2016). Report on EU strategic communication to counteract propaganda against it by third parties. In European Parliament. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved May 12, 2022, from https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-8-2016-0290_EN.html

Search via ReFindit


European Union External Action. (2021). Questions and Answers about the East StratCom Task Force. Brussels: European Union External Action. Retrieved May 12, 2022, from https://www.eeas.europa.eu/eeas/questions-and-answers-about-east-stratcom-task-force_en

Search via ReFindit


Glenn, R. W. (2009). Thoughts on Hybrid Conflict. Small Wars Journal. Retrieved May 13, 2022, from https://www.smallwarsjournal.com/blog/188-glenn.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Griscioli, G. (2016). Intelligence. The Hybrid War. Roma: Aracne

Search via ReFindit


Halpin, E., Trevorrow, P., Webb, D., & Wright, S. (2006). Cyberwar, Netwar and the Revolution in Military Affairs. London: Palgrave McMillan https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230625839

Search via ReFindit


Hannan, J. (2018). Trolling ourselves to death? Social media and post-truth politics. European Journal of Communication, 33(2), 214-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323118760323

Search via ReFindit


Hoffman, F. G. (2007). Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars. Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Retrieved May 8, 2022, from https://potomacinstitute.org/images/stories/publications/potomac_hybridwar_0108.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Hybrid Centre of Excellence. (2022). Hybrid Threats. Retrieved May 8, 2022, from https://www.hybridcoe.fi/hybrid-threats/

Search via ReFindit


Ivančík, R. (2016). Teoretické východiská skúmania problematiky hybridnej vojny – vojny 21. storočia. Medzinárodné vzťahy, 14(2), 130-156. Retrieved May 3, 2022, from https://fmv.euba.sk/www_write/files/dokumenty/veda-vyskum/medzinarodne-vztahy/archiv/2016/2/mv_2016_2_130-156_ivancik.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Ivančík, R. (2021). Informačná vojna – jeden z multidisciplinárnych fenoménov súčasnej ľudskej spoločnosti. Politické vedy, 24(1), 135-152. https://doi.org/10.24040/politickevedy.2021.24.1.135-152

Search via ReFindit


Jurčák, V. (2020). Súčasné pohľady na definovanie pojmov hybridná hrozba a hybridná vojna. Hodnoty trestného práva, kriminalistiky, kriminológie, forenzných a bezpečnostných vied v teórii a praxis. Plzeň: Vydavatelství a nakladatelství Aleš Čeněk, 2020, 753-769.

Search via ReFindit


Korauš, A., & Kelemen P. (2018). Protection of persons and property in terms of cybersecurity. Ekonomické, politické a právne otázky medzinárodných vzťahov, 18(1), 234-244. Retrieved May 7, 2022, from https://fmv.euba.sk/www_write/files/Virt_zborník.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Kovanič, M. (2017). Dezinformácie a ruská propaganda ako bezpečnostné hrozby. Bezpečnostní teorie a praxe, 2,121-132. ISSN 1801-8211.

Search via ReFindit


Krátky slovník hybridných hrozieb. (2022). Dezinformácia. Retrieved May 6, 2022, from https://www.nbu.gov.sk/urad/o-urade/hybridne-hrozby-a-dezinformacie/kratky-slovnik-hybridnych-hrozieb/index.html

Search via ReFindit


MacMillan Dictionary. (2021). Disinformation. Retrieved May 6, 2022, from https://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/disinformation

Search via ReFindit


Manko, O., & Mikhieiev, Y. (2018). Defining the Concept of 'Hybrid Warfare' Based on Analysis of Russian Agression against Ukraine. Connections. Information & Security: An International Journal, 41, 11-20. https://doi.org/10.11610/isij.4107

Search via ReFindit


Miller, M. (2015). Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict. Montgomery: Air War College https://doi.org/10.21236/ADA618902

Search via ReFindit


NATO. (2022). NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence. Retrieved May 8, 2022, from https://www.stratcomcoe.org/about-strategic-communications https://connections-qj.org/article/defining-concept-hybrid-warfare-based-analysis-russias-aggression-against-ukraine

Search via ReFindit


Oxford Learner´s Dictionary. (2021). Disinformation. Retrieved May 6, 2022, from https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/disinformation?q=disinformation

Search via ReFindit


Prier, J. (2017). Commanding the Trend: Social Media as Information Warfare. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 11 (4), 50-85. Retrieved May 9, 2022, from https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/Portals/10/SSQ/documents/Volume-11_Issue-4/Prier.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Silverman, C. (2016). This analysis shows how viral fake election news stories outperformed real news on Facebook. BuzzFeed.News Retrieved May 10, 2022, from https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/craigsilverman/viral-fake-election-news-outperformed-real-news-on-facebook

Search via ReFindit


The Guardian. (2022). The Cambridge Analaytica Files. Retrieved May 10, 2022 from https://www.theguardian.com/news/series/cambridge-analytica-files

Search via ReFindit


US DoD. (2000). United States Department of Defense: Joint Vision 2020. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. May 12, 2022, from https://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=446826

Search via ReFindit


Vargo, C. J., & Guo, L., & Amazeen, M. A. (2017). The agenda-setting power of fake news: A big data analysis of the online media landscape from 2014 to 2016. New Media & Society, 20 (5), 2028-2049. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444817712086

Search via ReFindit