Received: 2022-04-05  |  Accepted: 2022-06-10  |  Published: 2022-06-30

Title

Impact of employee attitude on their pro-social behavior: a case study


Abstract

The authors investigate what factors impact employee attitude and how employee attitude shapes their behavior. They admit that pro-social behavior (PSB) is a consequence of internal market and learning orientation since it affects the attitude of front-line employees. Therefore, the article focuses on the internal market and learning orientation, enabling an organization's culture via employee attitudes. A survey was conducted to collect the data from managers and front-line employees at higher educational institutes in Pakistan. The findings of the study are that (1) the internal market orientation (IMO) has a positive influence on the pro-social behavior of front-line employees (FLE); (2) employee attitude mediates the effect of IMO on PSB, and (3) employee attitude mediates the effect of learning orientation (LO) on PSB. Implications of the obtained results and further research directions are also mentioned.


Keywords

internal marketing orientation, learning orientation, pro-social behavior, higher education, front-line employees, attitude, Pakistan


JEL classifications

M31


URI

http://jssidoi.org/jesi/article/979


DOI


Pages

416-426


Funding


This is an open access issue and all published articles are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Authors

Čižo, Edmunds
Daugavpils University, Daugavpils, Latvia https://du.lv
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Awan, Raheel Amir
University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan http://www.uol.edu.pk
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Ali, Rizwan
University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan http://www.uol.edu.pk
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Abid, Nisar
University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan http://www.uol.edu.pk
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Journal title

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues

Volume

9


Number

4


Issue date

June 2022


Issue DOI


ISSN

ISSN 2345-0282 (online)


Publisher

VšĮ Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, Vilnius, Lithuania

Cited

Google Scholar

Article views & downloads

HTML views: 869  |  PDF downloads: 429

References


Abbas, J., & Dogan, E. (2022). The impacts of green organizational culture and corporate social responsibility on employees' responsible behaviour towards the society. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29, 40507–40519. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-022-19840-5

Search via ReFindit


Ahmed, F. (1996). Pakistan: ethnic fragmentation or national integration? The Pakistan Development Review, 631-645. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41259987

Search via ReFindit


Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1970). The prediction of behavior from attitudinal and normative variables. Journal of experimental social Psychology, 6(4), 466-487. 90057-0 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(70)

Search via ReFindit


Alshaikh, A., & Masmoudi, M. (2021). Human Resources Factors that Impact Front-line Employees Performance in the Hotel Industry in Bahrain. IEEE. 2021 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DECISION AID SCIENCES AND APPLICATION (DASA) 10.1109/DASA53625.2021.9681929

Search via ReFindit


Ansari, N.Y., Siddiqui, S.H., & Farrukh, M. (2018). The effect of high-performance work practices on innovative employee behavior: the mediating role of job embeddedness. International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences, 8(2), 64-88.

Search via ReFindit


Artusi, F., & Bellini, E. (2021). From vision to innovation: new service development through front-line employee engagement. Innovation-Organization & Management Early Access SEP 2021 https://doi.org/10.1080/14479338.2021.1979986

Search via ReFindit


Awwad, M.S., & Agti, D.A.M. (2011). The impact of internal marketing on commercial banks' market orientation. International ˜Journal of Bank Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652321111145943

Search via ReFindit


Baker, W. E., Mukherjee, D., & Perin, M. G. (2022). Learning orientation and competitive advantage: A critical synthesis and future directions. Journal of Business Research, 144, 863-873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2022.02.003

Search via ReFindit


Bettencourt, L.A., Brown, S.W., & MacKenzie, S.B. (2005). Customer-oriented boundary-spanning behaviors: test of a social exchange model of antecedents. Journal of Retailing, 81(2), 141–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2005.03.004

Search via ReFindit


Buhusayen, B., Seet, P.S., & Coetzer, A. (2021). Front-line management during radical organisational change: social exchange and paradox interpretations. Sustainability, 13(2), 893. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020893

Search via ReFindit


Cherian, J., Gaikar, V., Paul, R., & Pech, R. (2021). Corporate culture and its impact on employees’ attitude, performance, productivity, and behavior: An investigative analysis from selected organizations of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 7(1), 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010045

Search via ReFindit


Choi, E.K., & Joung, H.W. (2017). Employee job satisfaction and customer-oriented behavior: A study of front-line employees in the foodservice industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 16(3), 235-251. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332845.2017.1253428

Search via ReFindit


Day, GS (1994). The capabilities of market-driven organizations. Journal of Marketing, 58(4), 37-52. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299405800404

Search via ReFindit


de Bruin, L., Roberts-Lombard, M., & de Meyer-Heydenrych, C. (2021). The interrelationship between internal marketing, employee perceived quality and customer satisfaction–a conventional banking perspective. Cogent Business & Management, 8(1), 1872887. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2021.1872887

Search via ReFindit


Domínguez-Falcón, C., Martín-Santana, J.D., & De Saá-Pérez, P. (2017). Predicting market orientation through internal market orientation as culture and behaviour: An empirical application in Spanish hotels. The Service Industries Journal, 37(3-4), 229-255. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2017.1309391

Search via ReFindit


Dweck, C.S., & Leggett, E.L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256

Search via ReFindit


Gazzoli, G., Chaker, N. N., Zablah, A. R., & Brown, T. J. (2022). Customer-focused voice and rule-breaking in the front-lines. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 50(2), 388-409.

Search via ReFindit


Gounaris, S. (2008). The notion of internal market orientation and employee job satisfaction: some preliminary evidence. Journal of Services Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040810851978

Search via ReFindit


Harrington, R. J., Ottenbacher, M. C., & Fauser, S. (2017). QSR brand value: Marketing mix dimensions among McDonald’s, KFC, Burger King, Subway and Starbucks. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(1), 551–570. . 1108/IJCHM-06-2015-0300 https://doi.org/10

Search via ReFindit


Holte, K. L. (2014). The prevalence of silence. In C. M. Branson & S. J. Gross (Eds.), Handbook of Ethical Educational Leadership (pp. 139-150). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-021-00798-8

Search via ReFindit


Hu, S. (2020). Do front-line employees in the Chinese commercial banks have the right to experience psychological well-being? International Journal of Human Rights in Health Care, 14(1), 58-73. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHRH-06-2020-0040

Search via ReFindit


Kamau, N.J., Njau, M.M., & Wangyagi J. (2014). Factors Influencing Work Attitude Among 'Y' Generation (A case of Africa Nazarene University). European Scientific Journal, special edition Vol. 1, 636-642. http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/3683/3482

Search via ReFindit


Kipfmiller, K.J., Brodhead, M.T., Wolfe, K., LaLonde, K., Sipila, E.S., Bak, M.Y.S., Fisher, M.H., & Marisa, H. (2019). Training front-line employees to conduct visual analysis using a clinical decision-making model. Journal of Behavioral Education, 28(3), 301-322. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-018-09318-1

Search via ReFindit


Komarac, T., Ozretic-Dosen, D., & Skare, V. (2017). Understanding competition and service offer in museum marketing. Academia Revista Latinoamericana De Administración, 30(2), 215–230. https://doi.org/10.1108/ARLA-07-2015-0159

Search via ReFindit


Kudins, J. (2022). Economic usefulness of older workers in terms of productivity in the modern world. Insights into Regional Development, 4(1), 40-56. https://doi.org/10.9770/IRD.2022.4.1(3)

Search via ReFindit


Lages, C. R. (2012). Employees' external representation of their workplace: key antecedents. Journal of Business Research, 65, 1264-1272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.10.044

Search via ReFindit


Leonavičienė, E., & Burinskienė, A. (2021). Research on the reflection of cultural dimensions in international business. Insights into Regional Development, 3(4), 101-114. https://doi.org/10.9770/IRD.2021.3.4(7)

Search via ReFindit


Lings, IN (2004). Internal market orientation: Construct and consequences. Journal of Business Research, 57(4), 405-413. 00274-6 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(02)

Search via ReFindit


Lings, IN, & Greenley, G.E. (2005). Measuring internal market orientation. Journal of Service Research, 7(3), 290-305. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670504271154

Search via ReFindit


Makumbe, W. (2022). The impact of organizational culture on employee creativity amongst Zimbabwean academics. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 14(2), 523-531. https://doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2020.1864882

Search via ReFindit


Malhotra, N., & Ackfeldt, A.L. (2016). Internal communication and pro-social service behaviors of front-line employees: Investigating mediating mechanisms. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 4132-4139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.03.038

Search via ReFindit


Mavondo, F.T., Chimhanzi, J., & Stewart, J. (2005). Learning orientation and market orientation: Relationship with innovation, human resource practices and performance. European Journal of Marketing, 39(11/12), 1235-1263. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560510623244

Search via ReFindit


Minarová, M., Mura, L. & Malá, D. (2021). Corporate volunteering and creating a quality culture. Quality – Access to Success, 22 (185), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.47750/QAS/22.185.01

Search via ReFindit


Mintz, J., Hick, P., Solomon, Y., Matziari, A., Ó’Murchú, F., Hall, K., ... & Margariti, D. (2020). The reality of reality shock for inclusion: How does teacher attitude, perceived knowledge and self-efficacy in relation to effective inclusion in the classroom change from the pre-service to novice teacher year? Teaching and Teacher Education, 91, 103042. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103042

Search via ReFindit


Moskvina, J. (2022). Work after retirement: the evidence of sustainable employment from Lithuanian enterprise. Insights into Regional Development, 4(2), 52-62. https://doi.org/10.9770/IRD.2022.4.2(4)

Search via ReFindit


Mura, L., Zsigmond, T., & Machová, R. (2021). The effects of emotional intelligence and ethics of SME employees on knowledge sharing in Central-European countries. Oeconomia Copernicana, 12(4), 907-934. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2021.030

Search via ReFindit


Nassar, N., & Strielkowski, W. (2022). Transition towards green financial sector for gaining newly perceived competitiveness by adopting a green management model. Insights into Regional Development, 4(1), 71-88. https://doi.org/10.9770/IRD.2022.4.1(5)

Search via ReFindit


Podsakoff, N.P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P.M., & Blume, B.D. (2009). Individual-and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 122. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013079

Search via ReFindit


Routamaa, V., & Hautala, T.M. (2008). Understanding Cultural Differences: The values in a cross-cultural context. International Review of Business Research Papers, 4(5), 129-137.

Search via ReFindit


Sanden, G.R., & Lonsmann, D. (2018). Discretionary power on the front line: a bottom-up perspective on corporate language management. European Journal of International Management, 12(1-2), 111-137. https://doi.org/10.1504/EJIM.2018.089042

Search via ReFindit


Takeuchi, R., Li, Y., & Wang, M. (2019). Expatriates’ performance profiles: examining the effects of work experiences on the longitudinal change patterns. Journal of Management, 45(2), 451–475. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206317741195

Search via ReFindit


Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A.B., Heuven, E., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2008). Working in the sky: A diary study on work engagement among flight attendants. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(4), 345–356. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.13.4.345

Search via ReFindit


Xu, A.J., Loi, R., & Ngo, H.Y. (2016). Ethical leadership behavior and employee justice perceptions: The mediating role of trust in organization. Journal of Business Ethics, 134(3), 493–504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2457-4

Search via ReFindit


Yousaf, S., Rasheed, M.I., Hassan, M. & Luqman, A. (2020). Occupational stress and its outcomes: the role of work-social support in the hospitality industry. Personnel Review, 4(3), 755-773. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-11-2018-0478

Search via ReFindit